Java IO Stream 总结

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Stream 是在编程语言中对输入输出的总称 (一种比喻的称谓。Stream 为流水,输入输出实际上就是指数据的流动,数据由一个地方运动的另一个地方,就像流水一样,程序员将输入输出比作流水,再恰当不过了。)
流按照其所载内容分类,大致可分为字节流和字符流两大类
字节流 (Byte Stream
在计算机中,byte 是相当于机器语言中的单词,他在Java 中统一由InputStreamOutputStream 作处理。
字符流(Character Stream
而在编码体系中,一般采用Char2 bytes, 他在Java 中统一由ReaderWriter 作处理。
InputStream, OutputStream, ReaderWriter, 作为在java.io.* 包的顶级父类,定义了IO Process 中最抽象的处理和规范。对于实际的应用,他们并不适用。于是根据各种实际的需要,由他们派生出来形式各样各具特色的子类。
下表概述了Java IO 常用Classes 的关系:

 

常用Java IO Classes 关系图
Byte
InputStream/ OutputStream
Node
Byte Stream
FileInputstream/ FileOutputStream
PipeInputStream/
PipeOutputStream
Processing Byte Stream
FilterInputStream/
FilterOutputStream
BufferInputStream/
BufferOutputStream
DataInputStream/
DataOutputStream
PrintStream
Byte Char 通过 InputstreamReader OutputStreamWriter 来转换
Char
Reader/Writer
Node
Char Stream
FileReader/FileWriter
PipeReader/PipeWriter
Processing Char Stream
BufferReader/
BufferWriter
PrintWriter

(一)Stream 的分类:

1  Node Stream : 基本流,可以从名称中看出他是从哪个地方输入输出的。
1.1 用于文件输入输出流: FileInputStream, FileOutputStream
1.2 用于内存数组的输入输出流:ByteArrayInputStream, ByteArrayOutputStream
1.3 用于字符串的输入输出流:StringArrayInputStream, StringArrayOutputStream
1.4 用于管道的输入输出流:PipedInputStream, PipeOutStream ( 用于线程间的交互)
….
2  Processing Stream: 处理流,是对Node Stream 的加强和补充,可以看作是高级流。要构造一个高级流通常要以一个基础流为基础(如通过构造函数的参数传入)
2.1 用于提高输入输出效率的缓冲流:BufferedInputStream, BufferedOutputStream
2.2 用于数据转化的数据流: DataInputStream ( 用于读取JavaPrimitive Data Type) , DataOutputStream
2.3 8 位转化为16 位的流: InputStreamReader, OutputWriter ( 用于沟通byte Char )
2.4 打印流: PintStream
….

(二)几个重要的IO Classes

InputStream

 

abstract  int
( 可对应Char)
read ()
Reads the next byte of data from the input stream
int
read (byte[] b)
Reads some number of bytes from the input stream and stores them into the buffer array b.
void
close ()
Closes this input stream and releases any system resources associated with the stream. (Stream
用完之后要注意关闭!)
OutputStream

 

abstract  void
write (int b)
Writes the specified byte to this output stream.
void
write (byte[] b)
Writes b.length bytes from the specified byte array to this output stream.
void
close ()
Closes this output stream and releases any system resources associated with this stream.
 void
flush ()
Flushes this output stream and forces any buffered output bytes to be written out.
(不必等buffer 满了再写出,强行把所有的东西都写出来)
DataInputStream
能够读出在输入流中读出Java 的基本数据类型(primitive data type ),常在对输入流格式十分清楚的情况下使用.

 

 boolean
 byte
 char
 double
 float
 int
DataOutputStream
能够直接写出Java 的基本数据类型

 

void
writeBoolean (boolean v)
Writes a boolean to the underlying output stream as a 1-byte value.
 void
writeByte (int v)
Writes out a byte to the underlying output stream as a 1-byte value.
void
writeDouble (double v)
Converts the double argument to a long using the doubleToLongBits method in class Double, and then writes that long value to the underlying output stream as an 8-byte quantity, high byte first.
 void
writeFloat (float v)
Converts the float argument to an int using the floatToIntBits method in class Float, and then writes that int value to the underlying output stream as a 4-byte quantity, high byte first.
 void
writeInt (int v)
Writes an int to the underlying output stream as four bytes, high byte first.
FileReader

 

Constructor Summary
FileReader ( File  file)
Creates a new FileReader, given the File to read from.
FileReader ( String  fileName)
Creates a new FileReader, given the name of the file to read from.
FileWriter

 

Constructor Summary
FileWriter ( File  file)
Constructs a FileWriter object given a File object.
FileWriter ( File  file, boolean append)
Constructs a FileWriter object given a File object.
FileWriter ( String  fileName)
Constructs a FileWriter object given a file name.
FileWriter ( String  fileName, boolean append)
Constructs a FileWriter object given a file name with a boolean indicating whether or not to append the data written.
PrintWriter 最好的Writer ( 提供了我们熟悉的println() 方法)

 

Constructor Summary
PrintWriter ( File  file)
Creates a new PrintWriter, without automatic line flushing, with the specified file.
PrintWriter ( OutputStream  out)
Creates a new PrintWriter, without automatic line flushing, from an existing OutputStream.
PrintWriter ( Writer  out)
Creates a new PrintWriter, without automatic line flushing.

 

 void
println (boolean x)
Prints a boolean value and then terminates the line.
 void
println (char x)
Prints a character and then terminates the line.
 void
println (double x)
Prints a double-precision floating-point number and then terminates the line.
 void
println (float x)
Prints a floating-point number and then terminates the line.
 void
println (long x)
Prints a long integer and then terminates the line.
 void
println ( Object  x)
Prints an Object and then terminates the line.
 void
println ( String  x)
Prints a String and then terminates the line.
BufferedReader

 

int
read ()
Reads a single character.
readLine ()
Reads a line of text.
void
close ()
Closes the stream and releases any system resources associated with it.
BufferedWriter

 

void
write (char[] cbuf, int off, int len)
Writes a portion of an array of characters.
 void
write ( String  s, int off, int len)
Writes a portion of a String.
void
close ()
Closes the stream, flushing it first.
 void
flush ()
Flushes the stream.
InputStreamReader

 

Constructor Summary
InputStreamReader ( InputStream  in)
Creates an InputStreamReader that uses the default charset.
OutputStreamWriter

 

Constructor Summary
OutputStreamWriter ( OutputStream  out)
Creates an OutputStreamWriter that uses the default character encoding.

(三)IO 编程的一般流程:

1. 创建基本流
2. 升级基本流到高级流
3. 使用在高级流中的方法作读写操作
4. 关闭流并释放资源

典型例子:

——————————————————————————-
1. 创建 InputStream/Reader
2. 升级到 Buffered
3.使用方法 readLine()
   While((str=in.readln())!=null)
4. 关闭流,close()
——————————————————————————
1. 创建 OutputStream/Writer
2. 升级到 PrintWriter
3. 使用方法 println()
4. 关闭流,close()
——————————————————————————

(四)经典的IO代码(需要背诵在心)


 


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